What is common and different between Behavior Driven Development [BDD] & integration testing?

John Dee answers a question on Quora

I think this is one of those cases where simply knowing what the words mean helps. This question is exactly like, “What is common and different between Western Medicine and heart surgery?”

Behavior Driven Development[1] – Is a methodology and a philosophy of test first software development. It attempts to describe software “from the outside in” in terms of the behavior of system actors. BDD is a constellation of practices, tools, language [both computer and human], and techniques that include may include some of all of these elements: automated testing, DevOps, TestDD, Gherkin, Cucumber, Codeception, AcceptanceTestDD, Agile methodologies, and many others.

Integration testing[2] – In software development, especially in large projects that involve many teams, software architects may decide to conduct their work in “modules”. That is, separate software entities that are well, modular. Often a specific team will work on a specific module, so that Team A works on Module A, Team B works on Module B and so on. Integration testing is the activity of applying tests to groups of modules to “integrate” them. In other words, Module A works nice with Module B… add complexity.

The two terms aren’t diametrically related. You can do integration testing if your project has multiple large components. You can have a BDD philosophy [actually your SHOULD have a BDD philosophy in your software project], but you could develop software in many ways [Waterfall. Cowboy coding.] that might be less effective. You could perform integration testing as your only software methodology on a particular project. For instance, if the entire project revolved around merging two 3rd party projects: like putting two WordPress plugins on a site.

Read John Dee's answer to What is common and different between Behavior Driven Development [BDD] & integration testing? on Quora

Why is test driven development not made mandatory for all new software development across all companies?

Read John Dee's answer to Why is test driven development not made mandatory for all new software development across all companies? on Quora

Business Stakeholders: How to Describe a Software FEATURE

A feature from the biz perspective

What is a feature?
A feature is an aspect of software that is useful. Anything you can express, that is possible, and that you can afford, can be a feature. A bug is an aspect of software that isn’t useful.

Since we’re talking about development, we’re discussing software features that don’t exist yet. These are features that we would like to build, or existing features that we would like to make better. Describe a feature with should statements:

  • It should email all the clients once a month.
  • The client should have a setting page in the admin area.
  • The plugin should have a custom post type called GPS coordinates for each subscriber.
  • The div should show a timeline of Civil War battles in the footer area.

The next statement you should create is the reason for the feature you are requesting. What is the business value of this feature? Describe the reason by using a “Because”, or “So that”  or “In or that”

  • So that the clients are routinely updated.
  • In order that the user can change the settings.
  • Because we need to store the GPS data.

Alternatively, you can use Gherkin syntax for feature development.

The Toolkit for WordPress BDD


To do Behavior Driven Development [BDD] in WordPress, you need to get the tools! Here is the stack you should use:

Operating System

Ubuntu 16 LTS. I personally use an Ubuntu 17 development server on my laptop. You can run Ubuntu on most machines with a USB memory stick, and it’s free. I use Ubuntu on the Amzaon AWS remote cloud servers and production servers. Ubuntu is a brand, but it’s just a Debian based Linux distro, so it’s future proof. If you stopped liking Ubuntu, you could switch to another distro without hassel.
You can also use Mac or Windows.

Get the stack

Once you have a machine with Ubuntu running, you can load the entire development stack by running a single command:
source <(curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/johndeebdd/Remote-BDD-Setup/master/installScripts/wordpress.sh)
Directions

Test Framework

Codeception with WordPress modules - PHPunit is the standard and default library for doing unit testing in PHP. CodeCeption INCLUDES PHPunit, as well as a whole series of libraries for doing BDD.

Acceptance testing

You should use the WPWebDriver and WPDb modules. You can use Selenium to drive a full browser if you want, but generally you should use PhantomJS, because it is much faster. You can write your test in the Gherkin format, or in procedural PHP. Generally, I consider Gherkin cumbersome and not worth the candle.
Sample acceptance.yml

WP-Unit testing

You should use the WPloader and WPQueries modules.
Sample unit.yml

Where does code live?

Use a Git repo. Use Github for code that has a public face. Use Bitbucket for private repos [or pay Github for a private repo, either way].

How do you control outsourcer Git commit access?

First setup a few emails: freelancer1@yourdomain.com, freelancer2@yourdomain.com etc. These accounts are granted direct commit access to the repo. Give the outsourcer access to the email account. The repo itself can set a webhook to pull to the production server upon commit. When you want to freeze the outsourcer from the project, you just change the password on Github and email accounts. The project manager retains access to pull to production. The outsourcer can make a commit and it appears directly on the development server. When the commit is approved by the project manager, he does a manual pull to the production machine.

How does the outsourcer work on the code?

Some programmers will have their own IDE setups that they like and know how to use. Eclipse is the best free IDE, while PHPStorm is probably the best commercial IDE. If they know how to pull down from Github and run the code on a local host, great. If they don't know how to do that, setup a development server in the cloud for them. Our stack include the Codiad IDE, which is an open source IDE similar to PHPStorm. TO access it, just go to /codiad/ on your development server, it's all setup already.

How do you run the test suite?

cd /var/www/html/wp-content/plugins/{project dir}
bin/codecept run -vvv --html

How do I see the test results?

They appear in the terminal, or at http://yourdomain.com/wp-content/plugins/{project dir}/tests/_output/
Usually in the terminal you can use the up arrow shortcut.

How do I commit to the repo?

git add --all
git commit -m "some kind of message!"
git push origin master

How do I log in to the WordPress site?

You can log in by using the FastRegister plugin. Just enter an email in the sidebar form and viola! You're logged in as an admin.

How do I log in to a terminal?

The stack will preconfigured a user called "freelancer" with a password "password". Just SSH into the system without a pem file.

Roles in WordPress development

First of all, the word roles, has several meanings. This article refers to social roles human beings play in relation to one another during development.
On a WordPress site, there is a technical concept known as user roles and capabilities. The default ones are subscriber, contributor, editor, and administrator. This article isn’t referring to that use of the word roles.
Roles can be played by the same person, but usually aren’t in direct relation to the size of the project and organization.

  • business stakeholder – [aka the client, the product owner, the guy with the money] – This person wants software. It is from him the requirements flow, and hopefully the money.
  • project manager – [aka “Jobs”] Sharing financial awareness, and responsibility to a budget with the business stakeholder, the PM has overall responsibility for the project, usually including the ability to hire and fire people. This expert can, and must, throttle the efficiency of the project, and therefore should be paid in equity or a salary, not hourly.
  • developer – [aka “Woz”] the developer is a senior programmer. This person must have a global perspective of the project or at least on a major unit of the project. He can be paid a salary or hourly. Rates run from $20 – $150 hr based on experience.
  • architect – [QA architect, senior developer] This person sets up the development environment in conjunction with the PM and the developer. John Dee is an expert in WordPress plugin development architecture and can help you set up yours!
  • programmer – this junior to the developer writes code. He can be “front end” [javascript] or “back end” [PHP] or both. It is appropriate to pay a programmer hourly, or per project. Rates are from, gratis to $25 hr.
  • designer – In WordPress, a “designer” is a person who can modify themes. He can either be skilled at using a graphic page builder, or WYSIWYG editor, or they may know CSS and HTML. You should not employ a designer who cannot produce clean CSS and HTML code. Settings jockeys – designers who don’t know how to hard code things – should never be used. Rates are from about $7/hr to $20/hr

Running Codeception tests on multiple WordPress environments

Using the –env flag in Codeception. Running tests against multiple versions of WordPress.

Suppose you want to run your test suite against multiple environments? Perhaps with different browsers or with different versions of WordPress or PHP? Codeception makes this easy with the –env flag.

This is a plugin I made that rolls back a new feature added to WordPress 4.9. I want to run an acceptance test against the latest version of WordPress, and also against a legacy version of WordPress.

Setup multiple environments

I use an Ubuntu laptop with apache2. Your mileage will vary. When I develop a website, say site.com, I setup my laptop to redirect site.dev to a local directory on my laptop. There I keep a copy of the production site to work on.

Directions to setup multiple hosts from Rackspace.com

On my machine, I setup two distinct WordPress installs, one at http://localhost and the other at http://wp.dev. One running version 4.9 and the other running version 3.9.

WordPress v 3.9.23
WordPress v 3.9.23

WordPress v 4.9
WordPress v 4.9

In this example, I’ll be running an acceptance test against both versions of WordPress. I’ll need to setup the YML file like this:

I use this command:
bin/codecept run acceptance -vvv --html --env remotehost --env localhost

bin/codecept is the executable [might be wpcept or codecept]
acceptance is the suite
remotehost and localhost are the envs
-vvv very very verbose [one dash]
–html report to html [two dashes]

Codeception runs:

Passing Tests!
Passing Tests!

WordPress Plugin: Change Admin Email

General Chicken publishes a plugin in the .org repo: Change Admin Email Setting Without Outbound Email

As of WordPress 4.9, the administrator cannot change the site admin email without outgoing email setup on the server, and recipient email credentials. This plugin restores the admin’s ability to change this setting without sending a confirmation email.

Plugin in the .org repo
Plugin on Github


Bonus BDD!
As a bonus, for developers I’m distributing some BDD Codeception tests with this plugin. The tests are designed to run via the WordPress module from Codeception. To run them, you’ll need composer, selenium, and chrome. To pull the framework, use the instructions here.

I use this as an example of running tests in multiple environments.

When building this, I used TDD / BDD by creating an acceptance test that worked on v3.9 so that I could run the same test against v4.9. This is overkill, but I wanted to show how to run tests against different environments.