How can we manually create multilingual WordPress website without using Polylang plugin or Google Translator?

WordPress has some very simple i18n functions that can spit out manuals translations of anything into the user’s local language. i18n is a programming acronym for Internationalization and localization. That’s 18 letters between the “i” and “n”.

Specifically,

__() and _e() [note, that’s two underscores “__” and one underscore “_”]

Here is the reference in the codex:

I18n for WordPress Developers

Basically, WordPress has a tremendous i18n system that scans all the PHP files in the request BEFORE there are sent to the PHP engine. Translations are stored in web standard .po and .pot files, and are rendered based on the language set in the browser.

Now for content, you don’t need to re-invent the wheel as there are already plenty of good i18n plugins to choose from.

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Is there a way to automatically rollback WordPress versions and plugin/them versions if they break the site?

John Dee answers a question on quora.com

It can be done, but this is a seriously bad idea. If something is causing the site to crash when core or plugin updates happen, you need to solve the issue that is causing the problem, not rollback updates! If it’s a commercial site with value in any way, it’s pretty insane to setup a policy to keep updates rolled back. I suppose there could be a research reason or testing reason to do this, but I’m baffled by anyone doing this on a forward facing production site. DON’T DO THIS. KEEP YOUR SITE UPDATED.

Another answer:
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How do I speed up a WordPress website?

1% of problems we won’t talk about here. None of this advice applies to you.

98% of “I have a slow WordPress site” problems:

Cache plugins will NOT speed up your website significantly.
The number of plugins will not effect your site speed.
Putting your site on a CDN will not speed up your site.
Slow shared hosting – This has nothing to do with WordPress per se. It’s just that there are many WordPress blogs on shared hosts and they are often slow. You can run any kind of website slowly on a shared host. Some companies like GoDaddy or BlueHost can have thousands of websites running on one physical system. The interesting thing is that high speed, cloud based servers on Amazon or Google are actually cheaper than shared hosts. Of course, you have to learn how to setup a server! So this is a funny issue because it isn’t really about WordPress, it’s more about the economics of computer systems and the economics of knowledge. Anyway, if you’re a human being raising your hand saying, “My WordPress website is slow” the answer to your problem is to learn how to setup a WordPress server, or hire someone who can. Your problem is you just don’t know how to do something simple. It’s like not knowing how to put gas in your car, and not understanding why it won’t move.

Improperly uploaded or linked images

The other 1% of WordPress speed problems come from improperly adding images. When you upload to the media library, dy default WordPress rescans the image into three different sizes. If you use a properly coded theme from the free repo, your theme will serve the correct image to the user.

Solution for 98%:

Properly upload images via the media uploader.
Simply pay for faster hosting.

Question on quora.com

Is there any method to retrieve previous changes made in WordPress?

John Dee answers a question on Quora

Yes. You can restore previous changes made on “pages”. By default, WordPress has two post types. You can also have custom post types called anything [i.e. tickets, or calendars etc.]. The two default post types are “posts” and “pages”. Pages have a screen option called revisions which allow you to browse through previously saved pages. You can restore any previously saved post if you have the role “editor” or above. This feature can be enabled on any post type by a developer, and is enabled by default on pages.

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What is common and different between Behavior Driven Development [BDD] & integration testing?

John Dee answers a question on Quora

I think this is one of those cases where simply knowing what the words mean helps. This question is exactly like, “What is common and different between Western Medicine and heart surgery?”

Behavior Driven Development[1] – Is a methodology and a philosophy of test first software development. It attempts to describe software “from the outside in” in terms of the behavior of system actors. BDD is a constellation of practices, tools, language [both computer and human], and techniques that include may include some of all of these elements: automated testing, DevOps, TestDD, Gherkin, Cucumber, Codeception, AcceptanceTestDD, Agile methodologies, and many others.

Integration testing[2] – In software development, especially in large projects that involve many teams, software architects may decide to conduct their work in “modules”. That is, separate software entities that are well, modular. Often a specific team will work on a specific module, so that Team A works on Module A, Team B works on Module B and so on. Integration testing is the activity of applying tests to groups of modules to “integrate” them. In other words, Module A works nice with Module B… add complexity.

The two terms aren’t diametrically related. You can do integration testing if your project has multiple large components. You can have a BDD philosophy [actually your SHOULD have a BDD philosophy in your software project], but you could develop software in many ways [Waterfall. Cowboy coding.] that might be less effective. You could perform integration testing as your only software methodology on a particular project. For instance, if the entire project revolved around merging two 3rd party projects: like putting two WordPress plugins on a site.

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Page Builder plug in makes editing WP pages impossible (see screenshot / comment)

This question illustrates one of the many reasons NOT to use WYSIWYG page editors or builders, and to use a recommended workflow for WordPress. By using crapola 3rd party plugins, you set yourself up to be a hostage to whatever you’ve installed on your server. This is a website. You use paint for a painting, words for an essay, sound for songs, and you use code for websites.
Design – Hire a designer from a country where they can’t speak English, but they know how to draw with Crayons just as good as you. Demand a hard coded CSS theme for $30. Reject anything with database settings. Reject anyone who cannot produce a hard coded CSS theme. Pay me $20 cash and I will do this [hiring a proper designer for $30 bucks] for you in 15 minutes.
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